TABLE OF CONTENTS

NAME

Mojo::UserAgent - Non-blocking I/O HTTP and WebSocket user agent

SYNOPSIS

use Mojo::UserAgent;

# Say hello to the Unicode snowman with "Do Not Track" header
my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent->new;
say $ua->get('www.☃.net?hello=there' => {DNT => 1})->res->body;

# Form POST with exception handling
my $tx = $ua->post('https://metacpan.org/search' => form => {q => 'mojo'});
if (my $res = $tx->success) { say $res->body }
else {
  my $err = $tx->error;
  die "$err->{code} response: $err->{message}" if $err->{code};
  die "Connection error: $err->{message}";
}

# Quick JSON API request with Basic authentication
say $ua->get('https://sri:s3cret@example.com/search.json?q=perl')
  ->res->json('/results/0/title');

# Extract data from HTML and XML resources
say $ua->get('www.perl.org')->res->dom->at('title')->text;

# Scrape the latest headlines from a news site with CSS selectors
say $ua->get('blogs.perl.org')->res->dom->find('h2 > a')->pluck('text');

# Search DuckDuckGo anonymously through Tor
$ua->proxy->http('socks://127.0.0.1:9050');
say $ua->get('api.3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion/?q=mojolicious&format=json')
  ->res->json('/Abstract');

# IPv6 PUT request with content
my $tx
  = $ua->put('[::1]:3000' => {'Content-Type' => 'text/plain'} => 'Hello!');

# Follow redirects to grab the latest Mojolicious release :)
$ua->max_redirects(5)
  ->get('https://www.github.com/kraih/mojo/tarball/master')
  ->res->content->asset->move_to('/Users/sri/mojo.tar.gz');

# TLS certificate authentication and JSON POST
my $tx = $ua->cert('tls.crt')->key('tls.key')
  ->post('https://example.com' => json => {top => 'secret'});

# Non-blocking concurrent requests
Mojo::IOLoop->delay(
  sub {
    my $delay = shift;
    $ua->get('mojolicio.us' => $delay->begin);
    $ua->get('cpan.org'     => $delay->begin);
  },
  sub {
    my ($delay, $mojo, $cpan) = @_;
    say $mojo->res->dom->at('title')->text;
    say $cpan->res->dom->at('title')->text;
  }
)->wait;

# Non-blocking WebSocket connection sending and receiving JSON messages
$ua->websocket('ws://example.com/echo.json' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say 'WebSocket handshake failed!' and return unless $tx->is_websocket;
  $tx->on(json => sub {
    my ($tx, $hash) = @_;
    say "WebSocket message via JSON: $hash->{msg}";
    $tx->finish;
  });
  $tx->send({json => {msg => 'Hello World!'}});
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

DESCRIPTION

Mojo::UserAgent is a full featured non-blocking I/O HTTP and WebSocket user agent, with IPv6, TLS, SNI, IDNA, HTTP/SOCKS5 proxy, Comet (long polling), keep-alive, connection pooling, timeout, cookie, multipart, gzip compression and multiple event loop support.

All connections will be reset automatically if a new process has been forked, this allows multiple processes to share the same Mojo::UserAgent object safely.

For better scalability (epoll, kqueue) and to provide IPv6, SOCKS5 as well as TLS support, the optional modules EV (4.0+), IO::Socket::IP (0.20+), IO::Socket::Socks (0.64+) and IO::Socket::SSL (1.84+) will be used automatically if they are installed. Individual features can also be disabled with the MOJO_NO_IPV6, MOJO_NO_SOCKS and MOJO_NO_TLS environment variables.

See "USER AGENT" in Mojolicious::Guides::Cookbook for more.

EVENTS

Mojo::UserAgent inherits all events from Mojo::EventEmitter and can emit the following new ones.

start

$ua->on(start => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  ...
});

Emitted whenever a new transaction is about to start, this includes automatically prepared proxy CONNECT requests and followed redirects.

$ua->on(start => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  $tx->req->headers->header('X-Bender' => 'Bite my shiny metal ass!');
});

ATTRIBUTES

Mojo::UserAgent implements the following attributes.

ca

my $ca = $ua->ca;
$ua    = $ua->ca('/etc/tls/ca.crt');

Path to TLS certificate authority file, defaults to the value of the MOJO_CA_FILE environment variable. Also activates hostname verification.

# Show certificate authorities for debugging
IO::Socket::SSL::set_defaults(
  SSL_verify_callback => sub { say "Authority: $_[2]" and return $_[0] });

cert

my $cert = $ua->cert;
$ua      = $ua->cert('/etc/tls/client.crt');

Path to TLS certificate file, defaults to the value of the MOJO_CERT_FILE environment variable.

connect_timeout

my $timeout = $ua->connect_timeout;
$ua         = $ua->connect_timeout(5);

Maximum amount of time in seconds establishing a connection may take before getting canceled, defaults to the value of the MOJO_CONNECT_TIMEOUT environment variable or 10.

my $cookie_jar = $ua->cookie_jar;
$ua            = $ua->cookie_jar(Mojo::UserAgent::CookieJar->new);

Cookie jar to use for requests performed by this user agent, defaults to a Mojo::UserAgent::CookieJar object.

# Disable extraction of cookies from responses
$ua->cookie_jar->extracting(0);

inactivity_timeout

my $timeout = $ua->inactivity_timeout;
$ua         = $ua->inactivity_timeout(15);

Maximum amount of time in seconds a connection can be inactive before getting closed, defaults to the value of the MOJO_INACTIVITY_TIMEOUT environment variable or 20. Setting the value to 0 will allow connections to be inactive indefinitely.

ioloop

my $loop = $ua->ioloop;
$ua      = $ua->ioloop(Mojo::IOLoop->new);

Event loop object to use for blocking I/O operations, defaults to a Mojo::IOLoop object.

key

my $key = $ua->key;
$ua     = $ua->key('/etc/tls/client.crt');

Path to TLS key file, defaults to the value of the MOJO_KEY_FILE environment variable.

local_address

my $address = $ua->local_address;
$ua         = $ua->local_address('127.0.0.1');

Local address to bind to.

max_connections

my $max = $ua->max_connections;
$ua     = $ua->max_connections(5);

Maximum number of keep-alive connections that the user agent will retain before it starts closing the oldest ones, defaults to 5. Setting the value to 0 will prevent any connections from being kept alive.

max_redirects

my $max = $ua->max_redirects;
$ua     = $ua->max_redirects(3);

Maximum number of redirects the user agent will follow before it fails, defaults to the value of the MOJO_MAX_REDIRECTS environment variable or 0.

proxy

my $proxy = $ua->proxy;
$ua       = $ua->proxy(Mojo::UserAgent::Proxy->new);

Proxy manager, defaults to a Mojo::UserAgent::Proxy object.

# Detect proxy servers from environment
$ua->proxy->detect;

# Manually configure HTTP proxy (using CONNECT for HTTPS)
$ua->proxy->http('http://127.0.0.1:8080')->https('http://127.0.0.1:8080');

# Manually configure Tor (SOCKS5)
$ua->proxy->http('socks://127.0.0.1:9050')->https('socks://127.0.0.1:9050');

request_timeout

my $timeout = $ua->request_timeout;
$ua         = $ua->request_timeout(5);

Maximum amount of time in seconds establishing a connection, sending the request and receiving a whole response may take before getting canceled, defaults to the value of the MOJO_REQUEST_TIMEOUT environment variable or 0. Setting the value to 0 will allow the user agent to wait indefinitely. The timeout will reset for every followed redirect.

# Total limit of 5 seconds, of which 3 seconds may be spent connecting
$ua->max_redirects(0)->connect_timeout(3)->request_timeout(5);

server

my $server = $ua->server;
$ua        = $ua->server(Mojo::UserAgent::Server->new);

Application server relative URLs will be processed with, defaults to a Mojo::UserAgent::Server object.

# Introspect
say for @{$ua->server->app->secrets};

# Change log level
$ua->server->app->log->level('fatal');

# Port currently used for processing relative URLs blocking
say $ua->server->url->port;

# Port currently used for processing relative URLs non-blocking
say $ua->server->nb_url->port;

transactor

my $t = $ua->transactor;
$ua   = $ua->transactor(Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor->new);

Transaction builder, defaults to a Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor object.

# Change name of user agent
$ua->transactor->name('MyUA 1.0');

METHODS

Mojo::UserAgent inherits all methods from Mojo::EventEmitter and implements the following new ones.

build_tx

my $tx = $ua->build_tx(GET => 'example.com');
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(
  PUT => 'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(
  PUT => 'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(
  PUT => 'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Generate Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object with "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor.

# Request with custom cookie
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(GET => 'example.com');
$tx->req->cookies({name => 'foo', value => 'bar'});
$tx = $ua->start($tx);

# Deactivate gzip compression
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(GET => 'example.com');
$tx->req->headers->remove('Accept-Encoding');
$tx = $ua->start($tx);

# Interrupt response by raising an error
my $tx = $ua->build_tx(GET => 'example.com');
$tx->res->on(progress => sub {
  my $res = shift;
  return unless my $server = $res->headers->server;
  $res->error({message => 'Oh noes, it is IIS!'}) if $server =~ /IIS/;
});
$tx = $ua->start($tx);

build_websocket_tx

my $tx = $ua->build_websocket_tx('ws://example.com');
my $tx = $ua->build_websocket_tx(
  'ws://example.com' => {DNT => 1} => ['v1.proto']);

Generate Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object with "websocket" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor.

delete

my $tx = $ua->delete('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->delete('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->delete(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->delete(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking DELETE request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the DELETE method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->delete('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

get

my $tx = $ua->get('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->get('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->get(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->get(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking GET request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the GET method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->get('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;
my $tx = $ua->head('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->head('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->head(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->head(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking HEAD request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the HEAD method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->head('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

options

my $tx = $ua->options('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->options('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->options(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->options(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking OPTIONS request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the OPTIONS method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->options('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

patch

my $tx = $ua->patch('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->patch('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->patch(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->patch(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking PATCH request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the PATCH method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->patch('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

post

my $tx = $ua->post('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->post('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->post(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->post(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking POST request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the POST method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->post('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

put

my $tx = $ua->put('example.com');
my $tx = $ua->put('http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => 'Hi!');
my $tx = $ua->put(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => form => {a => 'b'});
my $tx = $ua->put(
  'http://example.com' => {Accept => '*/*'} => json => {a => 'b'});

Perform blocking PUT request and return resulting Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, takes the same arguments as "tx" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor (except for the PUT method, which is implied). You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

$ua->put('http://example.com' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

start

my $tx = $ua->start(Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new);

Perform blocking request for a custom Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, which can be prepared manually or with "build_tx". You can also append a callback to perform requests non-blocking.

my $tx = $ua->build_tx(GET => 'http://example.com');
$ua->start($tx => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say $tx->res->body;
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

websocket

$ua->websocket('ws://example.com' => sub {...});
$ua->websocket(
  'ws://example.com' => {DNT => 1} => ['v1.proto'] => sub {...});

Open a non-blocking WebSocket connection with transparent handshake, takes the same arguments as "websocket" in Mojo::UserAgent::Transactor. The callback will receive either a Mojo::Transaction::WebSocket or Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object, depending on if the handshake was successful.

$ua->websocket('ws://example.com/echo' => sub {
  my ($ua, $tx) = @_;
  say 'WebSocket handshake failed!' and return unless $tx->is_websocket;
  $tx->on(finish => sub {
    my ($tx, $code, $reason) = @_;
    say "WebSocket closed with status $code.";
  });
  $tx->on(message => sub {
    my ($tx, $msg) = @_;
    say "WebSocket message: $msg";
    $tx->finish;
  });
  $tx->send('Hi!');
});
Mojo::IOLoop->start unless Mojo::IOLoop->is_running;

You can activate permessage-deflate compression by setting the Sec-WebSocket-Extensions header, this can result in much better performance, but also increases memory usage by up to 300KB per connection.

my $headers = {'Sec-WebSocket-Extensions' => 'permessage-deflate'};
$ua->websocket('ws://example.com/foo' => $headers => sub {...});

DEBUGGING

You can set the MOJO_USERAGENT_DEBUG environment variable to get some advanced diagnostics information printed to STDERR.

MOJO_USERAGENT_DEBUG=1

SEE ALSO

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, http://mojolicio.us.